How to Make the Perfect Pretzel


Linda explores food facts, folklore, and fabulous recipes, one ingredient at a time.


It Began as a Little Reward

Blessed are the poor in spirit: for theirs is the kingdom of Heaven.
Blessed are those who mourn: for they will be comforted.
Blessed are the meek: for they will inherit the earth.
Blessed are those who hunger and thirst for righteousness: for they will be filled.

Beati pauperes spiritu: quoniam ipsorum est regnum cælorum.
Beati, qui lugent: quoniam ipsi erit consolabantur.
Beati mites: uoniam ipsi possidebunt terram.
Beatus, qui esuriunt, et sitiunt iustitiam: quoniam ipsi possidebunt terram.

The young boy humbly cast his eyes downward then, just for a moment, looked upward for a glimpse of his teacher's face. The kindly, gray-haired monk looked down at the small protégé, so proud he was of this dear student.

“You have learned your lessons well. Your Latin is perfect.”

Smiling, he reached into a basket and retrieved a twist of freshly-baked bread. “A pretiola for you my child. The arms are crossed in prayer, and the three holes that they form represent the Holy Trinity.”

In 600 A.D., Columban monks in Northern Italy gifted their students with small bread treats twisted into the the traditional posture for prayer. These "pretiolas" (little rewards) were created from the leftover remnants of the daily baking of bread.

Some food historians say that they were originally christened “bracellae” (Latin for ‘little arms’), which the German language interpreted as “bretzel.” No matter what they were dubbed, these bread treats soon became not only a reward but a way of providing sustenance to a hungry populace.

The Catholic Church had strict moral laws governing the prohibition of certain foods during Lent and times of penance. Pretzels, made simply of flour, water, and salt, were given a nod by the Church when meats and eggs were forbidden.


By the 1600’s the pretzel came to signify not only arms folded in prayer, but intertwined in love. According to The History Channel

Pretzel legend has it that in 1614 in Switzerland, royal couples used a pretzel in their wedding ceremonies (similar to how a wishbone might be used today) to seal the bond of matrimony and that this custom may have been the origin of the phrase “tying the knot.” German immigrants certainly brought pretzels with them when they began settling in Pennsylvania around 1710. In 1861, Julius Sturgis founded the first commercial pretzel bakery in the town of Lititz in Lancaster County, Pennsylvania.

Pretzel Trivia

  • The annual U.S. pretzel industry is worth more than $550 million
  • The average American consumed 1.5 pounds of pretzels per year
  • There is a Pretzel Museum in Philadelphia
  • In 2003 the Governor of Pennsylvania declared April 26 “National Pretzel Day”
  • The Sturgis Bakery in Lititz, Pennsylvania was the first commercial pretzel manufacturer.

What Is It That Makes a Pretzel so "Pretzel-ly"

Yes, it's a bread made with yeast, and it's twisted into an odd criss-cross shape. But there's something else that separates them from every other yeast-risen bread, and that is the chew, how they feel on and between your teeth when you bite into them.

So, how is that done?

First, The Technique

There are two actions (or reactions) that make a pretzel truly a pretzel. One is "fermentation" and the other is "relaxation."

Purists will tell you that the dough for a true pretzel must proof for a day before baking, and they're right. Yes, you can prepare the dough, shape, and bake in one day, but the end product will not have the yeasty flavor of dough that has been allowed to chill overnight. This is the fermentation part.

And then there is the boiling or simmering—think of it as relaxation—a sauna for your pretzel. Boiling, not misting with water, not baking with a steaming pan of water, but actually placing in simmering water with baking soda prior to baking is what gives pretzels their sheen and their crunchy, chewy exteriors.

And The Ingredients

But these two techniques alone do not make a pretzel. The ingredients are also a part of the equation; the whole truly is greater than the sum of the parts.

There are some foods that are amazing in their complexity—the layering of flavors and textures, the unique blends of herbs and spices. I'm thinking of French cassoulet, rich Italian bolognese, perhaps a Latin American mole sauce. All of them are bold and elaborate, employ a lengthy list of ingredients, and require long hours of cooking. Each of them, when made correctly, is outstanding, memorable, Heavenly.

And then there is the pretzel . . . so exquisite in its pure simplicity.

Flour, water, salt, yeast, sugar.

How They Work Together

Flour is the foundation for a good pretzel, and a key component of that foundation is protein (otherwise known as gluten). Despite what you might think, gluten is not a poisonous substance. It is a nutrient, a basic part of many of our foods. When viewed under a microscope, protein looks like a spider web; it is that “web” that traps carbon dioxide bubbles. The other important part of flour is starch. When heated, starch becomes firm and supports the protein webs.

Bakeshops use high-protein flour which you won’t be able to replicate exactly at home, but unbleached bread flour will get you pretty darned close. I am comfortable in recommending King Arthur or Bob’s Red Mill bread flours.

Water, when mixed with the flour starts a chain reaction. Water reacts with starch molecules and creates the gluten bonds (webs) that hold everything together. Water also carries the sugars to the yeast, helping it to bloom and form the gases that make bread dough rise.

Pretzel dough has a lower percentage of water than other yeast breads, resulting in a dough that is stiff and sturdy. When you see how they are shaped you’ll understand why this is so important. Stay tuned!

Salt adds flavor and it also chemically alters the gluten to make it stronger. Salt also slightly inhibits the work of the yeast; it slows it down so that bread doesn’t rise too quickly. Why is this important? If the dough rises before the gluten strands have become tight and strong, the bread will collapse. (Think of how much sturdier is a balloon than a bubble).

Yeast. Here’s the really cool part—did you know that yeast is a living thing? Enzymes in the yeast, when mixed with water, break down the starch molecules, converting them to simple sugars. And why? Yeast eats sugar. Sugar goes in, is digested by the yeast microbe, and then carbon dioxide is formed. It’s that gas, trapped in the webs, that makes your dough rise.

Baking soda in the boiling water bath helps to gelate (stiffen) the surface crust. It also contributes to the Maillard reaction, in other words, it's what gives pretzels their dark brown exterior.

Sugar (sweetener) – There is a league of pretzel defenders who say that it is impossible to create a true pretzel without using malt barley syrup. They are correct…and not. Barley malt syrup imparts a unique flavor to the finished product, but the texture of your dough will not be affected if you substitute another sweetener. (I hope I am not bombarded by hate mail). You can use any of the following with my blessing:

  • Barley malt syrup – You can certainly purchase this on Amazon, or if you are lucky enough to live near a shop that sells beer-making supplies (or better yet have a friend who makes his or her own brew) you can obtain it there.
  • Korean malt syrup or Korean rice syrup – both of these are available in Asian markets
  • Dark molasses – available at any grocery store
  • Organic honey – available in gourmet grocery stores and many/most large grocery stores.

So now that we know of the technique and understand how the ingredients work together, let's start making pretzels!

German Soft Pretzels (Laugenbrezel)

I wish that I could take claim to this recipe, but honestly, it is not of my own creation. I knew, however, what the requirements should and would be for a truly memorable, authentic soft pretzel and this is it!

Olivia is a supremely accomplished cook and baker, and her German pretzels hit the mark on every level. She "allows" you to bake them after just a few hours of rising. However, you will be richly rewarded if you take the time to let this dough ferment overnight in your refrigerator.

And The Perfect Cheese Dipping Sauce

What would soft pretzels be without a cheese sauce? (OK, yes they'd be fantastic, but this sauce makes them even fantastic-er).

Questions & Answers

Question: When making pretzels, what do you think about lye or baking soda in the boiling water? What about the method of baking the baking soda to increase its alkalinity?

Answer: Although that step is outlined in the recipe, I should have pointed out the section where I list the main ingredients and how they work together. I've added that information now.

© 2018 Linda Lum


Linda Lum (author) from Washington State, USA on June 13, 2019:

Bhartipay, thank you for your comment. In each of my articles I try to include a bit of history, a story to make it more interesting.

bhartipay on June 13, 2019:

i like the content and recipes of the food

Shauna L Bowling from Central Florida on July 26, 2018:

Thanks, I'll give it a look, Linda.

Linda Lum (author) from Washington State, USA on July 26, 2018:

Those Philly pretzels sound wonderful. BTW, Phillypretzelfactory.com sells franchises. There are 3 outlets in Florida.

Shauna L Bowling from Central Florida on July 26, 2018:

Linda, I went to Catholic school in Philly back in the '60s. During recess, we'd sell Philly pretzels for a nickel a piece. I'm telling you, there's nothing better than a Philly pretzel. They're oblong rather than heart-shaped and are about an inch and a half thick. The knot in the middle is soft. If you get them real fresh, they're a bit wet, making the pretzel salt stick ever-so-deliciously without falling off.

I actually prefer yellow mustard on soft pretzels. I don't think I've ever tried dipping them in cheese sauce.

Now I think I'll search the 'net to see if I can have authentic Philly pretzels delivered to my Central Florida door.

Louise Clare from Muscat, Oman on April 29, 2018:

I certainly will do:)

Linda Lum (author) from Washington State, USA on April 23, 2018:

Louise, I do hope you will give it a try. Depending on the age of your children, you might even be able to enlist their help.

Louise Clare from Muscat, Oman on April 23, 2018:

Hi Linda, I've always wondered how they make pretzels. It's one of the things that cost in the store, and my kids seem to love. I will have to have a shot at making my own.

Linda Lum (author) from Washington State, USA on April 22, 2018:

Flourish, I continue to hear about "butterbeer" but have no concept of what that is. My girls were a bit too old for the Harry Potter series, and so we've never read the books and seen the movies. Butter sounds great. Beer? Not so much.

Anyhow, it's good to hear from you. Wondering how your pretzel maker compares with the "real deal" boiled and then baked. Let me know.

FlourishAnyway from USA on April 22, 2018:

I received a pretzel maker (simply a cooking device that cooks 4 of them on both sides) and now my daughter and I have homemade pretzels and butter beer (a la Harry Potter) as after school snacks. Gotta have that cheese sauce too.

Linda Lum (author) from Washington State, USA on April 22, 2018:

Eric, thank you so much. It's why I'm here.

Linda Lum (author) from Washington State, USA on April 22, 2018:

Mary, you would have to look at the packaging on your specific type of salt. Most rock salt is not for human consumption. Coarse sea salt would be fine though.

Eric Dierker from Spring Valley, CA. U.S.A. on April 22, 2018:

Just loving your style of writing about the scrumptious in life. I really liked the explanation of how the ingredients work in synergism to create. From the little creatures called yeast to salt - fantastic. Mine are definitely going to get my local, organic, unfiltered, raw honey.

Mary Wickison from Brazil on April 22, 2018:

I can't even recall the last time I had a 'proper pretzel', it has been years.

I never thought about making my own. Instead of pretzel salt, can I use rock salt if I crush it more finely?

Linda Lum (author) from Washington State, USA on April 22, 2018:

Bill, I've never thought of dipping pretzels in horseradish, but then I don't think of horseradish at all. Too hot for this old gal. Thanks for stopping by. The weather is delightful.

Linda Lum (author) from Washington State, USA on April 22, 2018:

Aah Larry, I KNEW there was a reason you and I "click". I'm an unabashed chocolate lover as well. Look up my "Dark Chocolate Salted Brownies." They will make you swoon.

Larry W Fish from Raleigh on April 22, 2018:

Yes Linda, I have had the soft pretzels many times and they are delicious. I guess I was referring to the chocolate covered pretzels because I am a chocolate lover.

Bill Holland from Olympia, WA on April 22, 2018:

I can go years without eating a pretzel, and then one day they will sound good, and I'll eat them for weeks on end. Pretzels and horseradish!!! Love it!

Linda Lum (author) from Washington State, USA on April 22, 2018:

Larry, those are good (I assume you are referring to the hard pretzels that come in a cellophane bag). If you've never had a soft pretzel, you really don't know what you're missing. I'm glad that you stopped by. Have a wonderful day.

Larry W Fish from Raleigh on April 22, 2018:

You make me hungry, Linda. I have eaten so many pretzels in my life. Honestly, my favorite is the little chocolate covered pretzels.

Linda Lum (author) from Washington State, USA on April 21, 2018:

Thelma, how lucky for you that you have an easy source for fresh pretzels. Since you post from Germany one should not be surprised. But most of us....not so easy.

Perhaps you'd like the dipping sauce? Thank you for stopping by. I appreciate your visit.

Thelma Alberts from Germany on April 21, 2018:

Very informative hub. I have not baked a Pretzel yet as I could buy it here fresh in every bakery and supermarket. I love Laugenbrezel / Pretzel. Thanks for sharing.

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