Baking Tips: Why a Cake Sinks in the Middle and How to Stop It

Updated on July 6, 2015
If your cakes sink in the middle, it doesn't mean that you can't bake. Follow these tips.
If your cakes sink in the middle, it doesn't mean that you can't bake. Follow these tips. | Source

Why Cakes Sink in the Middle

Baking is a wonderful pastime, but constant problems such as cakes sinking in the middle can be disheartening. Hopefully, these simple baking tips will give you a better idea of the reasons cakes sink and how to prevent it.

When it comes to cakes, there are some, such as chocolate brownies, where it doesn't matter if the mixture has sunk a bit when it comes out of the oven—it just makes for a more gooey and luscious cake.

However there are some, such as sponge cakes, where it absolutely does matter, especially if you were planning on serving it to guests. (Though there ways of rescuing a sunken cake and turning it into a show stopper, so if you're reading this because your cake has sunk and you need a way to rescue, it skip down to "How to Rescue a Sunken Cake.")

Chocolate cake with blueberries and buttercream.
Chocolate cake with blueberries and buttercream.

When it comes down to it, there are two main reasons that cakes sink:

  • It is undercooked.
  • There is not enough structure in the cake.

We'll now take a closer look at each of these to better understand how to prevent it from happening.

Undercooked Cakes

Cakes cook from the edges in, so the middle is the last part to cook.

This is why it's possible to have a cake that's burnt on the edges and undercooked in the middle—result that is due mainly to the temperature of the oven.

Cakes that sink are generally ones that rise in the first place, i.e. those that have a raising agent in them such as sponge cakes. Cakes that don't have a raising agent, i.e. those made with plain flour, can still sink, but the effects won't be as noticeable.

Cakes rise because the raising agent reacts with other ingredients and the heat of the oven to create little air pockets in the cake mixture that expand in the oven. The cake mixture cooks around the air pockets and holds it shape, creating a light, fluffy sponge cake.

When you have a cake that rises, you ideally want it to rise and cook uniformly. If your cakes regularly have huge domes, so they are much deeper in the middle than they are at the sides, there is a good chance your oven is too hot for the cake. This makes sense if you think about it: Cakes cook from the outside, so the edges will form a crust first, meaning the only place for the cake to rise is in the middle. Cooking for slightly longer at a lower temperature can help to give a more uniform result and prevent the sinkage that occurs when the crust of the cake has set but the inside hasn't. For example, if a cake has a suggested cooking temperature of 180°C, I will start it for 10 mins at 150°C, then turn up to 160°C.

Always check your cake is cooked, don't just go by visual appearance—though if the cake is pale and you can see the middle wobbling, you can go ahead and assume it isn't cooked.

To check that it is cooked, insert a skewer into the deepest part of the cake at the centre. If the skewer pulls out clean, i.e. no mixture sticks to it, the cake is cooked. If mixture clings to it, the cake needs longer. If the cake needs longer, but the outside of the cake is looking in danger of burning, turn the oven down by at least 20°C—there will be enough heat to cook the cake, but it should stop it colouring any further.

Another way to check if your cake is cooked is to gently press the top of the cake with your thumb. If it springs back immediately, it's cooked; if not, give it a couple more minutes, then test again.

Cakes without Enough Structure

Another reason cakes sink is because the mixture doesn't have enough structure to it.

Cake mixtures are fairly precise, and whereas if you're making roast chicken with garlic and rosemary and don't have any rosemary, you can swap it for lemon and still end up with a perfectly good meal, you can't do that with cakes unless you really know what you're doing.

Being a couple of ounces short of flour or not having enough eggs can be the difference between success and failure when it comes to cakes as without the right ingredients there isn't enough form to the cake. It's like trying to build sandcastles with dry sand as opposed to wet sand—they just don't work.

Four Things to Check If Your Cake Isn't Rising Evenly

How to Rescue a Sunken Cake

By the time a cake has sunk, it has normally cooled, so putting it back into the oven isn't an option.

If the sinkage isn't too bad, i.e. it's more of a light depression than a crater, just change your design and cover it up. A slight depression means the cake is more or less cooked so you won't get cake mixture running out when you cut into it. Use butter icing, cream, cream cheese, or another sort of frosting, and so long at the top is level after you've applied the frosting, no one will ever know. If you're icing the cake with fondant, put extra buttercream in the depression to level it out before applying the fondant.

For more serious sinkages, i.e. ones where the middle of the cake looks like it's had a boulder dropped on it, the only thing to do is remove the middle. If you have a chefs ring or cookie cutter that is slightly bigger than the sunken part of the cake, use that. Otherwise, use a spoon to dig out the middle. Remember that the only part of the cake that isn't cooked is the sunken bit; the rest is perfectly fine.

Once you've removed the uncooked part, you'll have a cake that resembles a ring. Fill the centre with a mixture of frosting and fruit, decorate the edges of the cake, and it'll look like that was what you meant to do all the time—and it's quite likely you'll get asked to make 'one of those great ring cakes' again.

Remember, many great recipes have their origins in mistakes.

Read these other articles to find the answers to the common baking challenges of how to stop from cakes burning and how to stop them from rising in the middle.

Questions & Answers

    Comments

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      • profile image

        Dona Pettijohn 

        8 weeks ago

        I made a tray bake ginger/spice and it was rising great half way through and then the middle fell in, and no I did not open the oven as i have a glass door..Please help...But it was the most delicious pan of crumbly bake i ever tasted...Thank you

      • peachpurple profile image

        peachy 

        3 months ago from Home Sweet Home

        Thanks for your hub, I always thought that too much eggs or butter makes my cake sink in

      • profile image

        Kemsha 

        4 months ago

        Hi good day I tried your recipe and while it tasted great my cupcakes sank in the middle :( . I used cake flour but I added the baking powder.

      • profile image

        Dianne 

        4 months ago

        I never knew you could start a cake off at 150 then increase the temp after 10 mins. Good to know. My recipe calls for 45 mins and my cake is cooked after 30 with major collapse in the middle. Will try the “cooler start” in future

      • profile image

        Jay 

        4 months ago

        Another failure, I have used the same recipe for years and the same oven and now my Victoria sandwich is wasted once again. Any help would be appreciated.

      • profile image

        Silverj 

        5 months ago

        Hi, the same thing that happened to Chris, 5 months ago, has happened to me this morning, over the last two weeks have made two Victoria sponge cakes from a well known tv cook, successfully but am at a loss as to why the crater! Perhaps two of my eggs weren't as fresh as the othe two, could that b the problem? Welcome comments please.

      • profile image

        Linda 

        6 months ago

        Thank you. The butter cream worked. I also think that the recipe I used would have worked better in a 10 in spring form pan not 9. The batter was heavy. I also forgot to read the reviews. The author didn’t mention she had changed ingredients until reviews—- but the cake was good. Chocolate is ok gooey as long as baked. The lower oven is a great idea for long baking and not browning edges. Ty for all

      • profile image

        Lizzy 

        7 months ago

        what are 3 ways to stop deflated cakes

      • profile image

        Barbara 

        7 months ago

        Why do my Orange Blossoms sink in the middle?

      • profile image

        lauren 

        9 months ago

        i baked a chocolate cake last month and the inside of the cake came out like pudding.It was not spongy .............what can i do make make it spongy

      • profile image

        Chris 

        11 months ago

        I have baked my lemon drizzle cake scores of times with great results but the last 4 cakes have been a disaster

        They start to rise in the oven then towards the end of cooking time suddenly sink!! Now I’ve made sure I don’t open the oven or slam any doors but I’m at a complete loss as to what th problem is

      • profile image

        Lucasb 

        13 months ago

        I use cake baking insulated strips around my cake pans to help the cakes bake evenly. You can buy them anywhere they sell baking supplies. You soak them for 15 minutes, squeeze out excess water and then wrap them around your round, square or rectangle pan. The strips come with T Pins to hold them together while baking. They make professional looking layer cakes.

      • profile image

        mphillif 

        16 months ago

        Thank you so much for this thorough explanation! The ideas for rescue of a sunken cake are wonderful to know.

      • Spanish Food profile image

        Lena Durante 

        16 months ago from San Francisco Bay Area

        Excellent advice. Cakes can also fall if they cool too quickly, depending on the structure. Leaving them in the shut-off oven with the door open for a while can help.

      • iamradiantrose profile image

        iamradiantrose 

        18 months ago

        you've explained this so well...love this hub

      • profile image

        John L 

        22 months ago

        First time baking a vegan chocolate cake. It sunk in the middle so I will know how to deal with this problem when I bake it for the 2nd time. Easily understandable instructions. Thanks.

      • profile image

        Eileen 

        23 months ago

        Thank you I will try that. I have moved house and have never had an Electric fan oven. Mine was gas.

        This is my third cake that has dropped in the middle. I was going to give up and buy a cake.

        I will save it now. I will try your tips before I give up baking.I was very Dissapointed.

      • profile image

        Maggie 

        23 months ago

        I followed my recipe exactly it rose nicely then sank, it was a flourless orange cake. Very disappointed

      • profile image

        KMYMC 

        6 years ago

        That's what happened to my cake but these tips helped x

      • profile image

        CJW 

        6 years ago

        Thank you! I'm going to try it.

      • fillyourheart profile image

        Fill Your Heart Edible Memories 

        7 years ago from USA

        Thanks for the great tips!

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