A voice teacher and storyteller, Teddi's cooking relatives included a great aunt brought to Boston by the family she worked for in Britain.
Some folks seem to have trouble making fudge. While the process is a little time consuming and requires paying attention to a few details, it is not complicated. Fudge is just a mixture of milk, sugar, salt, butter, and some kind of flavoring. The tricky parts are how long to cook the mixture and how long to beat it.
My grandmother, although she did not make it often, was unusually gifted at making fudge. Upon discovering our doctor loved fudge, she promised him to bring him some. The next time she visited his office, she brought two pounds of peanut butter fudge. Later that evening, he called. “I’ve eaten all of it. I’m sick as a dog. But it was worth it.” Nana did not get the impression he had shared his goodies with anyone.
The three of us, my grandmother, my mother, and I, sat around the table looking at one another. All of it? Peanut butter fudge is very rich, particularly when Nana made it. A person might eat one or, maybe, two pieces. Not two pounds. To look at the doctor, one would never think he was a secret candy fiend.
Let us look at fudge fundamentals before turning to the Peanut Butter Fudge recipe.
As mentioned above, basic fudge is made of sugar and milk along with a little salt and butter, plus whatever ingredients are needed to give it a specific flavor. Boil the milk, salt, and sugar until the mixture reaches a certain temperature and consistency. Take the pan off the stove, add butter—usually—then beat. Once the mixture cools a little, add any other required ingredients—usually including vanilla—then continue to beat until the mixture thickens sufficiently. Now pour the mixture into a buttered pan.
Next, let the fudge cool just a few minutes then cut it into squares, leaving all in the pan. Let the fudge sit and get cold. Leaving it overnight is fine. Then turn out the fudge, breaking it up along the cut lines.
How to Tell Whether the Mixture Has Boiled Enough
While boiling, use of a candy thermometer is standard practice to ascertain whether the syrup mixture has reached the right temperature. But I am going to be a cooking heretic here. I don’t trust the thermometer, preferring instead to test the mixture in cold water to see if I get a certain shape. (We’ll talk more about that in a moment.)
Why would a working thermometer not be reliable? Weather can affect the candy, particularly humidity. Humidity can retard the progress of the cooking. When it is humid, the temperature should be a little higher. At high altitudes, the temperature should be a little lower. (Of course, a humid day on a high mountain could complicate matters.) It is always best to double check the thermometer’s readings with the water test because the right consistency, not the temperature, is the goal.
What is the water test? Once a candy has cooked to its proper consistency, a tiny quantity of the mixture, dropped into cold water, will produce a particular kind of result. Fudge, toffee, and hard candy are all different from one another. A toffee must cook longer than a fudge. A hard candy must cook longer still. When making fudge, if, with your fingers, you can form a soft ball from the syrup dropped in the water, then the fudge has cooked enough.
When doing the water test, it is advisable to take the pan off the stove so the mixture does not continue to cook. Below is a list of various outcomes depending on the type of candy being cooked. Soft ball and medium soft ball are the stages sought for most fudges.
The temperatures listed for each result is calibrated for sea level conditions. The Celsius temperatures are approximate conversions.
- Thread (230° to 234° F; 110º to 112º C) The syrup creates a thin thread of two or three inches that will then disintegrate.
- Soft ball (234° to 238° F; 112º to 114º C) The drops can be pushed together with the fingers to obtain a ball like shape that flattens out. When going for one of the ‘ball’ stages, always use the fingers to try to form it.
- Medium soft ball (238° to 240° F; 114º to 115º C) The ball just holds a spherical shape. The sphere may seem a little irregular.
- Firm ball (244° to 250° F; 118º to 121º C) The ball holds its shape better, is firm, but not hard. Should a fudge mixture cook too long, a firm ball stage will usually do for fudge. The candy will be harder then desired, but most times it will still taste all right.
- Hard ball (255° to 265° F; 124º to 129º C) The ball is firm and hard, though it may still be a little pliable. The texture tends to be chewy. Think taffy.
- Soft Crack (270° to 290° F; 132º to 143º C) The syrup will separate into threads, though not the soft ones of the thread stage that disintegrate. These are fine threads that are not yet quite brittle, but will break.
- Firm crack (290° to 300° F; 143º to 149º C) Getting into the brittle range. Think toffee and butterscotch.
- Hard crack (295° to 310° F; 146º to 154º C) The threads are hard and brittle. Notice the temperatures overlap with Firm Crack.
Once the temperature reaches 315° F; 157º C and beyond, the sugar is burning. Burnt sugar is also a stage sometimes desired. It can be used for flavoring. Think caramel.
When using a thermometer, Fannie Farmer’s recommends heating it first in hot water. Specifically, put it in the water and then slowly bring the water to a boil. Then it is ready to use in the candy pan. After using, Fannie Farmer’s recommends putting it in hot water to slowly cool.
The Beating Process
The beating process is the next tricky part. The beating makes it thicker and creamier. Some cookbooks will tell you that when the mixture loses its ‘gloss,’ it is ready to pour into the pan. In truth, it does not lose its gloss, or at least not enough to make much difference in its appearance. Once you have made fudge a few times, it is fairly easy to feel when the mixture is getting heavy and wants to harden.
Once you do know, you may want to use an electric mixer instead of the wooden spoon. (Always use the wooden spoon when the mixture is on the stove.) Beating manually can be hard on the arm. But if you have never made fudge, I would not recommend the electric mixer until you have a true sense of what the mixture feels and looks like.
Once the fudge has been beaten sufficiently, pour the mixture into a buttered, square cake pan. (A round pan won’t hurt, but you will have some odd shaped pieces.) It is nice to have a rack on which to allow the pan to cool.
Two important points:
- If you beat and beat and the mixture doesn’t thicken, it may need to cook some more. Pour it back into the pan and return to the stove.
- If, after poured, the mixture remains too soft, again it may need more cooking and/or beating.
A Few Last Notes About Fudge Basics
Candy should be cooked in a heavy, flat bottom pan. The pan should be deep enough that the mixture can boil without boiling over.
A fudge syrup should be cooked over medium heat, nothing higher. This is to prevent the milk from scalding and the mixture from catching. When in doubt, turn down the heat a little. Candy that is made with water rather than milk can be cooked over heat set a little higher.
Use a wooden spoon, rather than a metal one, to prevent crystallizing.
Have something to place the hot pan on when it is removed from the stove. I use an old wooden cutting board rather than risk damaging the counter or the table. A wooden board provides an excellent surface for the beating process.
That is the general outline. Let us now turn to the peanut butter fudge recipe.
- 3 cups of white sugar
- 1 1/2 cups of milk
- 1/4 teaspoon salt
- 3 tablespoons of peanut butter
- 2 tablespoons of butter, preferably unsalted
- 1 1/4 teaspoons of vanilla
Note about peanut butter: If you have a peanut butter where the oil separates, rising up and away from the thick peanut-y part, and must be stirred before using, pour off the oil. Do not stir it in. That oil will just get in the way. Better yet, go buy a peanut butter that does not separate.
- 3-quart saucepan
- Wooden spoon
- 8- or 9-inch baking pan
- Measuring cups
- Measuring spoons
- Candy thermometer (optional)
- Small cups for water
- Put 2 or 3 small cups of water in the refrigerator. These will be used to test whether the syrup mixture has reached the soft ball stage. Butter the pan into which the cooked mixture will be poured. Set the pan to one side.
- Now, mix in a saucepan, the sugar, salt, and milk. Place the pan on the stove over medium heat. Remember, be careful about letting the heat get too high. You need to stir the mixture, not constantly, but regularly, with a wooden spoon. Bring the mixture to a boil. Reduce the heat if the mixture threatens to boil over.
- If using a candy thermometer, when it reads 232° F (110º C), it is nearing the soft ball stage. Do a first water test. Likely it will not be quite ready yet. From here on keep a very close eye on the mixture.
- Once the mixture has definitely reached the soft ball stage, take it off the stove. Add the butter and the peanut butter. Briefly, allow them to melt into the mixture. Then, with your wooden spoon, stir them in and start beating. Many candy recipes tell you to let the syrup mixture sit for a while and cool. Don’t let it sit for longer than 2 to 4 minutes before you start beating. Part way through the beating process, once the mixture has cooled a little, add the vanilla. Continue to beat until the mixture feels fairly heavy.
- When the mixture is ready, pour it into the buttered pan. Let it sit for a few minutes. Next, cut it into squares with a sharp knife. To clean the candy off the knife, dip it in water regularly as you go. Once you are done cutting, leave the fudge in the pan until it is truly cold. Once cold, turn it out of the pan and carefully, along the scored lines, break it apart into pieces. Place the pieces on a plate or in a box. It keeps well in the refrigerator for a few weeks.
- Enjoy! Remember, you don’t have to eat the fudge as fast as my grandmother's doctor did.
Better Homes and Gardens. Cookies and Candies. New York. Meredith Press. 1966.
Collett, Elaine. The Chatelaine Cookbook. Toronto, Canada. Maclean-Hunter Publishing Company. 1965.
Perkins, Wilma Lord. (Revised by.) The Fannie Farmer Cookbook. Boston. Little, Brown and Company. 1965.
© 2019 Teddi DiCanio
Teddi DiCanio (author) on November 13, 2019:
How long does it usually boil?
No time is ever given for how long to boil a fudge. Figure it will take a few minutes just to come to a boil. Stir the mixture occasionally. Once it comes to a boil it will be several minutes anyway. Too many things affect the mixture which, in turn, affects the cooking time. The weather can affect the mixture. If it is humid, the mixture needs to be cooked a little longer to a higher temperature. The altitude can affect the mixture. The stove you are using can affect it. The temperature under a pan on a gas stove is easier to control than the burner of an electric stove. Turn down the flame of a gas stove and it changes immediately, although it may take a bit of time for the pan and mixture to cool. The coils of an electric stove need time to cool. It can be a good idea to pull the pan off for a minute if you realize the burner has been too hot.
Keep the flame at just below a solid medium. Better to be a little too low and cook longer, then let the mixture burn on the bottom. If you are using a candy thermometer, start doing the cold water test as the temperature approaches 232 F. If you are not using a candy thermometer, as the mixture seems to thicken, try the cold water test. If it is nowhere near soft ball stage, wait several more minutes before trying it again. If it is approaching soft ball stage, try again in a minute.
Good Luck, Teddi
Linda Crampton from British Columbia, Canada on July 11, 2019:
Thank you for sharing such a detailed description about making fudge. I'd love to have some fudge to eat right now after reading your article and looking at your photos.
Tori Leumas on July 11, 2019:
This looks good. I love fudge, but I've never made it before. I am accustomed to most cooking methods because I took a year of culinary arts classes about 6 years ago.