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The Best Pork Chops You Will Ever Taste

Thomas is an award-winning chef with 40+ years of experience. He loves to cook and share recipes.

Here is, I guarantee you, the best pork chop you will ever taste. If you like this recipe, spread the word about these wonderful pork chops.

Here is, I guarantee you, the best pork chop you will ever taste. If you like this recipe, spread the word about these wonderful pork chops.

Here is one of the best pork chop recipes I have ever tasted. Pork chops have always been one of my favorite foods, but when I tasted these mouth-watering baked chops, I was hooked.

One thing I go for when cooking is lots of flavor. To maximize flavor, use a package of dry Italian seasoning and fresh grated Parmesan cheese from the deli section of your supermarket. Or purchase a small piece of Parmesan cheese and grate it yourself. Also, use large loin-cut pork chops for the best flavor.

You will want a large baking pan with a rack, and I would suggest that you line it with tinfoil for ease of clean up.

The Recipe: Baked Breaded Pork Chops

Preheat your oven to 400 degrees.

Ingredients:

  • 3 cups fine dry Italian bread crumbs
  • 1 small package dry Italian dressing mix
  • 2 tablespoons fresh grated Parmesan cheese
  • 1 tablespoon dry powdered garlic
  • 1 bottle ranch dressing
  • 6 large loin pork chops

Instructions

  1. Put the first four ingredients in a large bowl and mix very well.
  2. Pour a layer of ranch dressing onto a plate; add more dressing as needed while you prepare the chops.
  3. Take one pork chop at a time, drop it on the plate, and turn it to coat it with ranch dressing. Hold it over the plate a few seconds to let excess dressing drip off, and then put the wet pork chop into the large bowl with the bread crumbs and coat it well on all sides.
  4. Have your tin-foil-lined baking pan with its rack sitting there ready. Place your breaded pork chops onto the rack. Once you have all your pork chops on the pan, place it in the oven and bake for 45 minutes, or until the thick part of the chops reaches an internal temperature of 160 degrees.
  5. As soon as the chops are done, remove from the pan and serve as soon as possible.

I really believe that once you taste these pork chops you will agree that they are truly the best pork chops you will ever eat.

If you make this recipe please post a comment and let us all know how it turned out for you.

A grilling pan like this will produce pork chops that are never soggy. Your pork chops need to be up out of the juices.

A grilling pan like this will produce pork chops that are never soggy. Your pork chops need to be up out of the juices.

Tips For Crisp—Not Soggy—Pork Chops

People keep asking how can they make pork chops that aren't soggy on one side. First of all you need to use a pan with a rack in it like in the photo above. Your pork chops need to be kept up out of the juices. If you try to lay them on tin foil on a pan they will be soggy.

Also, I've been experimenting with the recipe, and I can tell you that you need to shake the excess ranch dressing off before you bread them. I got three batches to come out perfectly crisp doing it this way. That, and the rack in the baking pan, will make perfect crisp pork chops.

I have been cooking my perfect chops at 400 degrees. Do keep an eye on your pork chops, especially at this higher temperature.

Always Keep Food Safety in Mind

The recipe above may leave you with more breading than you can use. If you don't use it, discard it. It's tasty, but since it's been around raw meat, bacteria might grow in it. If you find you don't need that much breading, cut it down some so you won't have as much left over.

Please Post Your Comments, Tips, or Suggestions

Amy on February 21, 2019:

Delicious!! My whole family loved them and that’s not easy to accomplish. Thanks!!

Dona Kreutzer on January 22, 2019:

I made these tonight and coated them with crushed pork rinds as I’m doing Keto and they were wonderful! Even my non-keto eating family really liked them.

Andi on December 04, 2018:

These were absolutely awful! Stick to the old fashioned way of breading things...flour, eggs, breadcrumbs. The breading fell off, they were mushy, and I threw them in the garbage! Don't waste your time and money making these.

April on June 30, 2018:

We love these chops. They are the only ones I make anymore, thanks for sharing!

Kathy C on May 02, 2018:

Worst pork chops ever. Made recipe exactly as written. I don't waste food or we wouldn't have eaten them.

Denise M on May 09, 2017:

I have used this recipe for years on boneless chicken breasts. Delicious

Margie B on April 07, 2017:

Made exactly as written and they were delish! Crispy but mushy closest to the meat • but still good and tasty. Thanks for sharing.

Annie on September 13, 2016:

Unbelievably delicious! Making them again tonight for the fourth or fifth time. Without a doubt, the best pork chops I've ever eaten. Thank you so much for the recipe!

Kenney on May 24, 2015:

Im making thesebfoe dinner tonight, and already everyone in the house is asking whats smells so food and cant wait for dinner. If they tast as good as they smell dinner is going to be really good.

cherricka on March 24, 2015:

made these exactly as written. Used a rack with foil underneath, sprayed the rack. Yum!

Sylann on February 12, 2015:

Wish I had read comments before I made these. Half of the breading mixture would have worked without all the waste. Pork chops are in oven! Can't wait to taste them!

Alfred Miller from Rowland NC/United States on January 04, 2015:

Looks great ! I must try this recipe!

Thomas Byers (author) from East Coast , United States on February 17, 2014:

They are truly the best pork chops you will ever eat. Wonderful flavor.

vickie on February 17, 2014:

yep they are awesome

Dee on November 13, 2013:

Made these pork chops they were wonderful! Everybody loved them , I used a rack and booked at 375 they were nice and crispy not soggy at all thanks

krystal on September 22, 2013:

These we awesome! family loved them. Only thing i changed was putting fresh garlic and instead of buying Store bread crumbs i used stale french bread . Super cheap and came out so crunchy :-) imma put this one in my book thanks

Sandy on June 14, 2013:

I am making these now. They smell soo good! I'll let you know how they were!

Donna on May 05, 2013:

Delicious! Made two weeks ago and family raved. Husband usually turns his nose up when I cook pork, but actually requested that I make these again! I haven't had freshly grated parmesan either time, but used the bottled sort and they are STILL great. Turning them midway through cooking has not turned out so well, as the crust tends to fall off. Mine haven't been soggy, but not really crispy either. Regardless...they are well worth adding to your favorite recipes!

JB on April 20, 2013:

They were the best pork chops I ever ate! I used thick pork loin chops, so I marinated them for two hours in ranch dressing, dipped them in the bread crumb mixture and baked them on a rack at 400 degrees. I covered them with foil for the first 30 minutes. Delicious and crispy!

Melissa on April 20, 2013:

I just made these. 3 2inch pork loin chops 2cups of regular seasoned bread crumbs, the italian seasoning packet, and halfed the parmesan and garlic powder. I put it directly on the oven rack and cooked for 25 mins. PERFECTO!

Kayren on April 15, 2013:

Made these & they are definitely fantastic!! I did make one change tho, the whole pkg of italian dressing part sounded a little too strong for our tastes (and I didn't have the dry mix on hand anyway) so I mixed 1 cup ranch with 1/4 cup of the regular italian dressing. Was perfectly seasoned for us! Hubby raved about them & the 2 left over chops disappeared by morning! lol I will definitely be making these over & over again! Thank you for sharing this recipe!

Side note: I put the breadcrumb mixture in a gal size ziploc bag & after I dipped the chops in the ranch mixture, I let excess run off, then put the chop in the breadcrumb bag & shook it around til covered well (I used tongs to do all the transfering, not messy at all) I also didn't have a rack & I hate baking on tin foil, I opted to use parchment paper cut to fit my pan & turned the chops after 30 minutes (baked 1 hr total) And I also just squeeze the air from the breadcrumb bag & seal it & freeze it for next use, I label each bag as to what meat it goes to (pork, chicken etc) the ingredients in the bag & sometimes what recipe I used it for. I have done this for years & have never had any problems from it, just wait til you are ready to use it the next time before removing it from the freezer, I wouldn't trust it if it came to room temp first. :)

Kayren on April 04, 2013:

Cooking these today, gonna try baking them on parchment paper since I dont hav e a pan rack. Hope it works. lol

Mel on April 01, 2013:

Loved this recipe. We love pepper so I added it into the mixture.

John on March 31, 2013:

Made these for Easter dinner. They were a big hit. Even though we cooked them on a rack, most all of the breading fell off in the pan below. Still a great taste and will have them again!

DianeMargaret M. on March 19, 2013:

We LOVE these!

For the breading...we use

1 cup bread crumbs

1 Tbsp Parmesan

1/2 Tbsp Dry Italian dressing mix

1 teas Garlic powder or Adobo

You can always put the rest of the dressing mix away for the next time! Or, figure out the ratio to mix it up as the dressing...

Anyway, I found that that is PLENTY of breading for 6 normal sized chops!

Tammy on March 12, 2013:

never mind, i read through all of the info. LOL, well i used a broiler pan and they are semi-soggy and semi-crispy! however, the taste is WONDERFUL :)

Emily B on March 05, 2013:

I didn't have ranch dressing in a bottle. I was going to use mayonnaise, but I discovered 3 little packets of lemon garlic caesar dressing, so I figured I'd try it! I coated both sides with the dressing and then put just italian breadcrumbs on it, not any of the garlic powder or anything, since there was already garlic in the dressing. Mmmmm it was seriously THE best bone-in pork chops I've ever had! Okay, it was my first time making them too, but I've eaten plenty in my day! I'm gonna have to stock up on that lemon garlic caesar dressing! Haha :)

scrouse92 on March 05, 2013:

These were some of the best pork chops I have ever had/made and they were so easy to put together! They tasted so good and had a nice crunch, but were still juicy on the inside! Everyone loved these and asked for the recipe!

Tosha on February 20, 2013:

Mine are in the oven now. Can't wait to try them

Thomas Byers (author) from East Coast , United States on February 07, 2013:

Don't know why some peoples are soggy. Mine never are. Did you cook them at the right temp.

Mindy on January 29, 2013:

I made this tonight with two large chicken breasts. I didn't measure anything, just eyeballed what I needed and tasted as I went. Any leftover breadcrumbs I piled on top. I cooked at 350 for about 35 minutes. This was fantastic! BF loved the drippings. The bottom was a little soggy, but it was nice to run the plain chicken pieces through. The ranch dressing (light, btw) seemed to have kept the juices in the chicken and made it very moist. Thank you!

Denise on January 24, 2013:

I tried this recipe using turkey breast filets. Turned out yummy! They were a little soggy on the bottom. I might try using a rack next time.

Jnay on January 14, 2013:

Making these tonight. I am using boneless chops since that's what I have in the fridge. My husband isn't a big fan of pork chops, but I think these look delicious! I'll be back later to let you know what everyone thinks!

Gia on January 10, 2013:

These are the most delish and my husband, kids and I all loved them! I found the recipe on Pinterest! Thank you! Tonight is the second time we are having them!

BeckyA on December 19, 2012:

Very moist and tasty! I used only one cup of crumbs for 4 LARGE chops, and cut the other ingredients in half roughly. I did flip them and put in the broiler for a few minutes to crisp up the bottom, even on a rack they were not as crispy. I will be making these again for sure!

Lcleeth on December 19, 2012:

I made this recipe last night, and my husband and I agree these are the best ever! I used thin cut pork chops on a cookie cooling rack on a cookie sheet and cooked for about thirty minutes.

Txgirl on December 05, 2012:

I thought it was great and I even forgot to add the dry Italian dressing. Lol. But it wasn't soggy

K on November 30, 2012:

These were wonderful!!

Didn't have a rack but improvised with cookie cooling rack over a cookie sheet.

I use sirloin chops and cooked at 400 degrees for 35 mins.

Super flavor and very tender!

Jenny on November 28, 2012:

Made these a while back for my fiancé and I. He hates ranch dressing but he tried them anyway. He absolutely LOVED these so much that we are having them again tonight for dinner!

Brooke on November 14, 2012:

Hi! I didn't have a rack so I just cooked three pork chops in a glass baking dish for 33 min at 400° and then for 5 min. on. broil. They were really good and actually pretty crispy on top!

KarenRWix on November 08, 2012:

Making these right now, with the rack instead of foil....

CaptainK, thanks sooooo much for the idea of freezing the leftover breadcrumb mixture! What a fantastic idea!

DianeMargaret on November 07, 2012:

These are officially toddler, and husband, approved!

Of course, neither of them is particularly picky eaters but they are both VERY opinionated when it comes to flavor!

I agree with everyone on not needing all the breadcrumbs though!!! I only used a cup of crumbs, half the garlic powder and left the rest the same. They were REALLY good...and surprisingly moist!

Thomas Byers (author) from East Coast , United States on October 31, 2012:

They are truly some of the best pork chops you'll ever eat in your life.

julie on October 31, 2012:

Thanks for the awesome recipe my whole family loved them

Thomas Byers (author) from East Coast , United States on October 30, 2012:

Thanks Jenny they are great pork chops

jenny1980 on October 30, 2012:

Great recipe my husband and I always look for recipes that include "Ranch" turned out great was a little soggy, but once I put then on broil for 5 mins they had a delicious crispy texture. Thanks for the recipe

Thomas Byers (author) from East Coast , United States on October 24, 2012:

Your very welcome. Thanks everyone for the comments. They are delicious. As is either chicken thighs or chicken breasts cooked this way.

carri on October 24, 2012:

best pork chop ever! My fiancé LOVED the pork chops. It was very easy to do. Thank you

shell on October 24, 2012:

I'm making these tonight, i'm sorry for many of the silly comments.people need to slow down and READ. Thank you chef Thomas!

Thomas Byers (author) from East Coast , United States on October 22, 2012:

Thanks Alice for the kind words. They are appreciated

Alice, Chef, Miami Florida on October 22, 2012:

I have tried several of Chef Thomas' recipes and I have to say this is one of the best recipes for pork chops ever. He gives clear instructions and if you'll follow them you can make these wonderful pork chops to.

They have to be cooked at 400 degrees and they have to be cooked on a rack.

I see people have problems and they wouldn't if they would slow down and read carefully.

This is truly one of the best recipes for pork chops ever.

Thanks Chef Thomas

For those of you who don't know Chef Thomas was a famous Chef in the late 1990s in Miami. He is one of the best Chefs ever.

Pork Chop Lover on October 19, 2012:

If you will follow the instructions they cook perfect and crisp every time.

wendy on October 13, 2012:

I made these tonight and they turned out great, put them on a rack over a foil lined cookie sheet, very moist inside, crispy coating. My family loved it! Cooked for 40 min at 400 degrees

Lois on September 28, 2012:

I will deffinetly use A lot less breadcrumbs next time, bake at 400 degrees after browing them 1st in EVOO. Great flavor but still a bit soggy after putting them under the broiler.

danielle on September 24, 2012:

Made this tonight with chicken...yummy! I used reduced fat ranch dressing and it was a bit dry, next time I will use regular ranch. I made on a grill pan and filled once and it was good and crisp! Will make again!!!

Daryl on September 09, 2012:

The flavour of these chops was delicious, but as a number of other people have posted, they turned out soggy. I followed the recipe exactly & used a rack in the pan, even turning them after 20 minutes. Turned on the broiler for a few minutes at the end & that helped crisp them somewhat. Will have to do some tweaking, but would definitely still try this again!!

Tara on August 08, 2012:

I made these tonight and they were yummy! I used ranch packet instead of Italian because that's all I had...they were a tad soggy on the bottom but they taste so good it didn't matter:)

Marilee on August 01, 2012:

Mine were great because the meat was really good and I cooked them just right. I thought 400 was too high. I made 1/2 the crumbs and seasoning, but would do no more than 1/3 again. Mine were not crispy at all, so would use Panko crumbs.

CTGirl on July 23, 2012:

Just ate these for dinner and everyone liked them, even my semi-picky girls. Used the rack idea and it worked pretty well - still not AS CRISP as the top, but my cook time was only 25-30 minutes. I'm sure if it cooked longer it would have been crispy. Definitely adding this to my recipes :) Thanks so much for the rack idea, too --- I never would have thought to do that!

Thomas Byers (author) from East Coast , United States on July 23, 2012:

The rack will produce the best non soggy pork chops. You can do it with tinfoil but it is harder.

CTGirl on July 23, 2012:

In the directions you say to put the chops on a tin foil lined pan, but in other spots, you say to put the chops on a rack for non-soggy chops. I'm guessing it's the cook's choice/decision? Foil for soggy, Rack for not soggy??

[I started to skim through the Comments but there were so many, I just decided to post!]

Mary Calloway on July 22, 2012:

My husband absolutely loves this recipe. I stumbled upon it one day on Pinterest and this has become our favorite pork chop recipe. I make it a couple times a month and it never gets old. Thanks for sharing this delicious dish :)

Gladdent on July 18, 2012:

Delicious. Cooked 30 minutes at 400 on a rack and they were near perfection.

Pork Chop Lover on July 15, 2012:

This recipe is the best ever recipe. If you will slow down and read this guys recipe thry are the best pork chops ever. But follow the directions

Christina on June 02, 2012:

I made these last night and they were very good. I only used 4 chops too, so I had way too many bread crumbs. I wish I had thought to save some for next time, but I didn't. I think this mixture would be great on chicken too. I may try that soon :) Thanks for a great recipe!

Thomas Byers (author) from East Coast , United States on May 24, 2012:

It says 400 degrees in many places.

I changed the temperature to 400 degrees after some experimentation here in my own kitchen.

It says that right at the top of the page

Colleen on May 22, 2012:

Just put them in the oven. Cant wait to try them! I thought it also looked like a lot of breadcrumbs after mixing it up. I also only used 4 pork chops so that could have been part of it. Before dipping the chops in the bread crumbs I put half of them aside. I figured if I needed them then I would have them ready and if not I would save them for later use. I ended up saving them so we will get two meals out of them :)

Thomas Byers (author) from East Coast , United States on May 22, 2012:

No the tin foil was to line pan for ease of clean up. Do not cover them.

sheila_young88@hotmail.com on May 22, 2012:

Do you cover the pan with foil or leave them uncovered?

Thomas Byers (author) from East Coast , United States on May 20, 2012:

You should never cook these pork chops on foil. They must be cooked on a rack raised up in a pan.

slvrbulit80@aol.com on May 20, 2012:

Ok, thanks trying them tonight

Thomas Byers (author) from East Coast , United States on May 20, 2012:

We raised the temp to get rd of the sogginess some people experienced. Go with the higher temp but keep a eye on them.

slvrbulit80@aol.com on May 20, 2012:

The top of the receipe says preheat to 400, then later on in the comment section, it says 350. Which one do you use?

Susie on May 17, 2012:

I made this recipe last night except I used small boneless chicken breasts! FABULOUS!! They were so moist and tender and great tasting! Thanks!

Thomas Byers (author) from East Coast , United States on May 16, 2012:

Sorry but I keep posting don't put your meat into but a few of the bread crumbs at a time. Don't wet all your bread crumbs until you know how many you really need. Use half and if you need more add more. There is no reason to waste your bread crumbs just use common sense.

jen on May 16, 2012:

you only need one cup of bread crumbs... I threw out 2 cups, and I hate wasting food,especially bread crumbs, cuz they are so expensive!

Thomas Byers (author) from East Coast , United States on May 15, 2012:

You should only use a small amount of breading at a time so you won't have breading left over. Never reuse breading later if it has come into contact with meat of any type. So be sure to only use a little breading at a time.

Kelly on May 15, 2012:

The pork chops were great but I had tons of breading left over...

Sarah on May 11, 2012:

OMG these truly are the best, most moist pork chops I have EVER eaten. Sooo yummy and my family loved them as well..

missmolly on May 10, 2012:

after dredging in ranch & bread crumbs, i browned the chops in olive oil slightly before baking. they did not come out soggy.

Thomas Byers (author) from East Coast , United States on May 09, 2012:

Maria I'm really glad you and your husband enjoyed them.

Maria on May 09, 2012:

THE best pork chops we have eaten. My husband loved them.

Sandy Bell on May 04, 2012:

I was a skeptic until I made these TENDER pork chops tonight!! I'm sold! I will make these always! THANK YOU FOR THE FANTASTIC, EASY RECIPE!!

Thomas Byers (author) from East Coast , United States on April 29, 2012:

They are really the best pork chops you will ever eat. I also cook skinless boneless chicken thighs this way and they turn out wonderful.

Nikki on April 29, 2012:

I made these tonight, total success!! Everyone loved them!

Sonja Philip on April 27, 2012:

I'm going to try this recipe sometime in the next two weeks... sounds really good...

wanted to make a comment for those who think it is too much breading that gets wasted and doesn't want to store leftovers that have touched the meat...

I always make my "breading" in a bowl and then spoon out a bit at a time into a plate or wherever I am breading the meat... that way, my breading stays clean and I can even store it in a ziploc in the pantry (and I use a sharpie to write what is in the breading on the bag) - saved us lots!

Nance on April 22, 2012:

Our family prefers a grilled chop, but our favourite "go to" breaded baked chop will be this from now on in. Great taste, so moist, and easy to make. Thank you so much for a great chop !!

Bgodfrey on April 15, 2012:

Wonderful....I overcooked a littlle. Next time I will cook covered for 40 min then broil a minute. Served with steamed cabbage and baked sweet potato. It w delicious.

Keith on April 11, 2012:

Turning the chops 2/3 through the bake time will cut down on soggy bottoms. Pork contains considerable fat and gravity pulls that down, soaking the crumbs. Turning will also make chops moister as the the juices baste the meat from the center as they cook. I turn meat often on the grill also for this purpose. It isn't advised for frying however, as the breading will be dislodged. Bacon also cooks softer without as much curl if it is turned often.

I tried these chops and got rave reviews for them. I didn't have Italian dressing around, so I left that out of the recipe. It still had enough seasoning. Always dry meat with a paper towel before breading as the surface moisture has a high fat content and will prevent breading from adhering when it cooks away. Use an accurate meat thermometer instead of depending entirely on stated cook times. Ovens vary widely unless they are calibrated, which most don't bother with. It's easy though, and your stove's manual should have directions.

Nicole Smith on April 09, 2012:

I made them tonight they turned out good, I didn't have ranch seasoning so I used my epicure spice 3 onion and I added fresh garlic to the ranch dressing. Thanks for the added info about the wire rack because I made a different version of these and they were soggy but not this batch. Yummy!

Ashley on April 06, 2012:

Oh my cow, whoever said to save and reuse the breadcrumbs PLEASE stop cooking until you take a sanitation class, and for the love of God stop giving out advice! Pork is one of the most dangerous meats, it can make you incredibly sick if it contaminates other food.

Debbs` on April 06, 2012:

Made them last night and they are now my favorite pork chop recipe. Easy to make and the recipe is easy to remember. Thank you for posting!

Melissa Martinez on April 05, 2012:

I made these last night they we a hit my hubby and my two kids ages 5&3 ate everything! This is my new recipe no more shake n bake thanks for sharing!!

Holly on April 04, 2012:

OK - I used 2 butterfly pork chops & cut everything in half. Had some left over but not enough that it had me thinking it was a lot left over...I put a cooling rackside of my dark bar pan with a piece of foil under to help with clean up. They were soggy on bottom & the top wasn't browning and the crumbs were still dry. I'm not sure if I did something wrong, I reread the recipe several times but couldn't figure anything I'd done wrong. We turned them over & stuck them back in at 400 then turned it to broil. The flavor was very good adn my husband and I both ate ours. Our VERY PICKY (doesn't ASK to try anything) 6 year old even asked to try a bite. He said he liked it, but then that he didn't care for anymore. Ended up asking for a 2nd bite though. He actually ate it though & didn't spit out that first bite so that was impressive to me! I will definitely make again, but would love to know if there is something I did wrong for it to come out not browned & with the crumbs still dry on top but soggy on bottom?

Shannon on April 03, 2012:

These are so incredibly tasty! Thanks for the recipe! I did 4 (1 and 1/2 inch) boneless chops with half the breadcrumb recipe. Used a rack and had no sogginess whatsoever. For those worried about extra breadcrumbs you can make the recipe as is and then dump 1/3 or 1/2 of the crumb mix into a bowl for breading and reserve the rest in the original bowl. If you need more crumbs as you go just dump some from the original bowl into the breading bowl. Freeze the ones in the original bowl that never touched the pork and you are ready to make your next batch!

Sadie on March 30, 2012:

I made these tonight and parts of them came out crispy and some parts not so crispy, but that's because of the ranch dressing. But OMG, these were killer good and definitely another keeper for the recipe box.

Misty on March 29, 2012:

Made these tonight!!! They were wonderful!!! I will be having these again!!!

Thomas Byers (author) from East Coast , United States on March 27, 2012:

The Best Grilled Pork Chops You Will Ever Eat

https://hubpages.com/food/How-To-Grill-The-Perfect...

Teresa on March 26, 2012:

Made these tonight and the flavor was fabulous. Very quick and easy to make. My only disappointment was despite following all directions they were soggy, not crispy. But they were yummy!

Linda on March 25, 2012:

When breading meat I always keep the breading separate, only adding what I need to the dish I do the breading in as needed. That way the leftover crumbs have not been contaminated and may be kept safely for next time :)