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Complete Guide to Filipino Vegetables (With Tagalog Names)

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Precy loves to write about many topics, including Filipino culture, legends and traditions.

Learn all about the tasty vegetables that grow in the Philippines.

Learn all about the tasty vegetables that grow in the Philippines.

When I was growing up in the Philippines, my family's backyard garden served as our own private market for fresh, homegrown veggies for our daily meals. Our garden contributed to our livelihood, as well, as my mother used to sell a portion of our harvest at the local market. And although I didn't always love every single one of these vegetables, seeing them growing in container pots or gardens always reminds me of my childhood.

Particularly in the Philippine provinces, backyard vegetable gardens are very common. It's more convenient than having to make a trip to the nearest market, it saves money, and it's healthier, too. When you grow your own vegetables you can make sure they're free of chemicals.

Let's take a look at some of the most common vegetables in the Philippines.

Bitter Melon

Tagalog: Ampalaya

Scientific name: Momordica charantia

One of the most commonly grown veggies is the bitter melon, or ampalaya. Not only is the ridged green fruit edible, but the leaves are edible, as well (the leaves are often used to make an immunity-boosting tea). Typically sold in bundles, ampalaya is commonly served with mung beans or incorporated into scrambled eggs. It is also one of the preferred ingredients in two Ilocano dishes: pinakbet and dinengdeng.

Bottle gourd (upo)

Bottle gourd (upo)

Bottle Gourd

Tagalog: Upo

Scientific name: Lagenaria siceraria

Bottle gourd, or upo, grows on vines and is another favorite vegetable. It is best to pick the fruit young, when the skin is smooth and light green. Upo can be sauteed with misua noodles or substituted for green papaya in tinola.

When upo fully matures on the vine, it turns completely green and is no longer suited for consumption. At this point, it can be harvested and used as a water dipper or bottle.

Chayote (sayote)

Chayote (sayote)

Chayote

Tagalog: Sayote

Scientific name: Sechium edule

Chayote, also known as pear squash and christophene, is known locally as sayote. It's a pear-shaped fruit that grows on a vine, and it often appears in the Filipino dish tinola.

In addition to the fruit, the leaves and the young shoots are edible, as well. Sold in bundles in the markets, the leaves and shoots can be steamed or added to dishes like sinigang, pinakbet, and dinengdeng.

Some people consume the roots, as well, which can be eaten like yams. I haven't tried this myself, so I can't comment on this from my own experience.

Eggplant (talong)

Eggplant (talong)

Eggplant

Tagalog: Talong

Scientific name: Solanum melongena

Eggplant, or talong, always had a spot in our backyard garden. Growing up, I enjoyed many breakfast eggplant omelets, or tortang talong. Eggplants can be broiled, fried, or cooked along with other veggies in many Filipino soups.

Green Amaranth

Tagalog: Kalunay

Scientific name: Amaranthus viridis

Green amaranth, or kalunay, is a favorite veggie of the Ilocanos region. This vegetable is also known as red spinach, most likely because the seedlings are reddish in color—though this fades to green when the plant matures.

Kalunay is easy to cook, and it works well in almost any Filipino dish. It can be simply steamed with mung beans or sauteed sardines. It can also be included in salads. Some people consume the roots, too.

Note: Kulitis (amaranthus spinosus) is a related but distinct variety. This variety has spikes along the flowers, leaves, and stems, which can add an extra preparation step if you are cooking with it.

Hyacinth Beans

Tagalog: Bataw

Scientific name: Lablab purpureus

Another common garden occupant is the hyacinth bean, often seen climbing up trellises or whatever it can find for support. When I was young, I used to climb up our nipa hut in order to pick hyacinth beans for my mom. I always thought this was a fun task, but I do remember one time when I spotted worms on the plant. I've always been frightened by worms, so that memory is very clear in my mind!

In addition to the beans, the young leaves and young pods are also edible after the rough edges have been removed. Even the flowers are edible, I've been told. When the pods mature, the beans must be removed and the pods discarded.

Note: Be careful with the dry beans, as they are poisonous. They may be consumed only after a long period of boiling.

Jute Mallow

Tagalog: Saluyot

Scientific name: Corchorus olitorius

Jute mallow, or saluyot, is another favorite in backyard gardens. It is the leaves of this plant that are consumed, and it is one of the primary ingredients in the Ilocano dish denengdeng, which is a mixture of vegetables seasoned with fermented fish. I should mention that saluyot has a bit of a slimy characteristic, not unlike okra.

Jute mallow provides a good source of calcium, iron, protein, and beta-carotene.

Lemongrass (tanglad)

Lemongrass (tanglad)

Lemongrass

Tagalog: Tanglad

Scientific name: Cymbopogon citratus

When I look at the photo above I can almost smell the aroma of lemongrass, known locally as tanglad. It was one of my dad's favorites in our garden.

We use lemongrass fairly frequently in Filipino cooking. We use it in chicken tinola and in many seafood dishes (such as milkfish and tilapia). Personally, I always make sure I have lemongrass on my arroz caldo, or rice porridge.

Lima Beans

Tagalog: Patani

Scientific name: Phaseolus lunatus

Lima bean, or patani, is an annual climbing vine with green, ovate leaves with pointed tips. The plant bears white clusters of flowers that turn into green, oblong lima bean pods. The young leaves, pods, and seeds are all edible. The white variety of patani is considered to be the best, whereas the darker-colored beans should be boiled because of the amount of potentially poisonous phaseolunatin they contain.

When boiled, patani seeds are a delicious addition to Filipino dishes such as sinigang. The seeds are a great source of fiber, magnesium, and folate.

Long Beans

Tagalog: Sitaw

Scientific name: Vigna unguiculata

I love sauteed long beans, or sitaw, and it's no surprise that this is another backyard garden favorite. Long beans complement almost any Filipino dish, such as beef or pork stew, or nilaga. It's also a great choice for the sour dish sinigang, which can be made with either meat or fish. Of course, long beans can also be enjoyed steamed, and when eaten this way they're often served with a popular Filipino dipping sauce called sawsawan. They can also be served with a sauce of calamansi, soy sauce, and a dash of salt; or with a mixture of chopped tomatoes and chives with either soy sauce or fish sauce.

Long beans are also known by a few other names, such as asparagus beans, snake beans, and long podded-cowpeas.

Moringa (malunggay)

Moringa (malunggay)

Moringa

Tagalog: Malunggay

Scientitic name: Moringa oleifera

Moringa, also known as drumstick tree, horseradish tree, and benzoil tree, is called malunggay in Tagalog. Widely cultivated in the Philippines, both the leaves and the young pods are edible.

Moringa's tripinnate leaves can be cooked along with other vegetables in dishes such as tinola (a chicken soup–based dish) and sinigang. They can also be cooked with coconut milk along with shredded, smoked fish and squash. My mom also included the leaves and pods on her favorite Ilocano dish, pinakbet.

Okra

Okra

Okra

Tagalog: Okra

Scientific name: Abelmoschus esculentus

Okra is another veggie that is commonly found in Filipino gardens and markets. Also called ladies' fingers, okra has a slimy quality. Some people fry their okra in order to lessen the sliminess.

Okra is a central ingredient in several favorite dishes, including the chicken soup–based dish tinola. It is also an ingredient in the Ilocano dish pinakbet.

Sponge gourd (patola)

Sponge gourd (patola)

Sponge Gourd

Tagalog: Patola

Scientific name: Luffa acutanggula

I like thinly sliced sponge gourd with sardines and misua. It also goes well with horseradish and other vegetables in the Ilocano dish dinengdeng.

Sponge gourd is best when it is young; when it matures it hardens and becomes too spongy to be consumed. So what can we do with mature sponge gourds? They are made into sponges that we use in our kitchens and even in the bath.

Squash

Tagalog: Kalabasa

Scientific name: Cucurbita maxima

Grown as a creeping vine or with a trellis, squash, known locally as kalabasa, is another common vegetable here in the Philippines. In addition to the fruit, the flowers and shoots are also edible. The young leaves are cooked in the Ilocano dishes pakbet (pinakbet) and dinengdeng. They can also be sauteed with meat or shredded smoked fish, or with coconut milk (guinataan) along with other vegetables such as long beans, eggplants, and moringa leaves.

Winged beans (sigarilyas)

Winged beans (sigarilyas)

Winged Beans

Tagalog: Sigarilyas

Scientific name: Psophocarpus tetragonolobus

A tropical legume plant, all parts of the winged bean are edible, including the flowers. It is the pods, however, that are typically seen in the markets.

Also known as goa beans, winged beans are known as sigarilyas in the Philippines. Mature winged beans are tough to chew, so it is recommended to harvest pods when they are no longer than six inches.

Sigarilyas can be pickled or stir-fried. They are tasty when cooked with other vegetables for sinigang, and they can also be cooked with coconut milk and shredded smoked fish.

Comments

Jack Burton from The Midwest on March 05, 2019:

After 45 years still do not prefer the bitter melon but most everything else I think is great.

Nilda Johnston on September 17, 2018:

I want to know the name of the vegetable that u can liken it to a hairy caterpillar, long n somewhat greenish, yellowish in colour. My mom used to include it in pinakbet or dinengding.

Linda Bryen from United Kingdom on May 22, 2018:

I love all of them Philippines vegetables especially the chayote and okra and long beans too. Good hub Precy.

precy anza (author) from USA on December 01, 2012:

That's great Carol :) You probably are familiar to those then. And I'm thankful those photos turned out great, now I'm glad I have my old phone which I'm using for photos. Thanks Carol ^-^'

carol stanley from Arizona on December 01, 2012:

I recognized several of these veggies....What an interesting hub. I love learning about new foods. These photos are great and you did a super job. Voting UP++

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